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The Islamic Republic of Iran, until 1935 known as Persia, is a state in the Middle East and the borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia in the north, and Turkey and Iraq to the west. Iran's coastline along the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in the south and the Caspian Sea in the north.

The country is a plateau with deserts and steppes, surrounded by mountains. Iran has a dry climate with warm summers and cool winters.

Agriculture with irrigation is the most important industry. It is cultivated both wheat, rice, barley, beet and sugar cane. Livestock is important, especially sheep, goats and cattle. Iran has a versatile consumer goods industry. Iran has a very old craft tradition, and is very famous for its carpets. Oil sources are the economic backbone and oil make up most, 80% of the export value. Their main trading partners are China, Germany, South Korea, Japan, Russia, France and Italy. Until 1979, the United States the country's main trading partner.

Iran is considered as a regional power in the Middle East and holds an important role in global energy demand and the global economy because of their large reserves of oil and natural gas. The country's geostrategic position and size are also important factors.

The country often affected by earthquakes - powerful earthquakes in 1997 and 2003 caused extensive damage and many lives were lost.

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